Eretria area - Tsangli Magoula





The area of Eretria hides in its bowels one long story, the beginning of which is lost in the dawn of Greece's prehistory.


In Tsangli - Magoula, which is located in the valley of an Enipeas side river, at the eastern edge of Farsala's plain, a few kilometers north of the village, stands on a low hill (a product of lap occupation), as a settlement of the Middle Neolithic period (5600 - 5300 BC). Magoula has dimensions of approximately 200 ? 200m and embankments of 10m in depth. The identification of prehistoric embankments was after earthworks of the early last century, thereby becoming a first excavation investigation by the great Greek archaeologist Christos Tsountas (1905), while the excavation was continued by the British archaeologists A.Wace and M. Thompson (1907 - 1910), with the opening of test sections, providing us with important architectural and ceramic remains, which became the basis for subsequent research, studies and interpretations of findings of similar period, from other locations.

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The architectural remains were identified from four buildings, three of which are superimposed. They are quite large, elaborate rectangular buildings with stone foundations and brick superstructure.

 eretria6  eretria7







The historic city of Eretria was grounded upon a large hill plateau on an altitude of 651m., west of the modern village, towards the village Palaiomylos. The area to the north of the village, in a slanted surface, extends to the Palaiomulos's smooth valley, while to the south it is cut short by a tall cliff. The city rises above a threshold that separates the interior of Thessaly, to the eastern and western Thessalian plain. During ancient times, three passages, leading to the valley of Almyros to the west, were passing from this location. The northern one was passing near Eretria, the southern one was passing near the modern village of Kallithea, close to the ancient Pevma Citadel, while the middle one was passing near Fylaki. Further to the north, a passage crossing through the basin of Aerino led to Ferrae. In conclusion, the position of the city was of strategic importance, since it was the crossroad between Pharsalus - Ferai and Skotoussa - Alou.

Eretria administratively belonged to "Perioikis Achaia Fthiotis', within the power of "Quartet Fthiotis", in other words, the city was under Pharsalus's command.

The city's name is etymologically related to the verb eresso or eretto, meaning "to paddle". This mainland city's unlikely name finds its explanation in the case that the city either was founded, or had received colonists from Euboea's Eretria, which was coastal. However, the mythological founder of the city was Admetus, king of Pherae, in whose service god Apollo was under. According to an inscription found in the lower part of town, Apollo was worshiped in Eretria.

At the top of the hill the Citadel was built, separately fortified, as usual, from the lower city, which was also fortified by walls. The wall is built with the engager technique, its maximum width reaches 2.50 to 3.00 meters, while its maximum preserved height is over 4.00 m. Eight rows are partly preserved, which were reinforced with at least four towers, having at least, eight gates.

East of the city, traces of a worship mosque have been identified.






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