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VASSO NOULA

ARCHAEOLOGIST

SPECIAL MAYOR’S ASSISTANT

 

In Byzantine times the city was mentioned in written sources as Phthia - a less common type - Pharsalus, Pharsala Fyrsala and Pharsalia. Administratively, the city belonged to Greece, while its church was occasionally bishopric, diocese and archdiocese until 1382, when, along with Fanari Karditsas, it became the Metropolis Fanariofersalon.

In the 8th and 9th century, despite the raids from Bulgarians and Saracens, the city experienced an economic bloom..

There are frequent references to the city in relation to various historical events from the late 10th century onwards.

After the first conquest of Constantinople in 1204 by the Crusaders and their descent in Greece, Pharsalus was conquered by Boniface of Montferrat and is being annexed in the Lombard kingdom. The Franc occupation lasted until 1222.

From 1309 to 1333 the city joined the Catalan duchy of Athens. It was once again recovered by the Byzantine emperor, Andronicus III.Γ'.

In 1348 the city was occupied by the Serbian ruler Stefan Dushan's General, Thomas Preloumpo and remains under Serbian occupation for 45 years.

In the late 14th century Pharsalus passes into the hands of the Turks.

The city area during the Byzantine period shrank dramatically. It was limited to the highest part of the northern slope of Prophet Elias hill, occupying the 1/6 of the original ancient city.

vuzantinos purgos

 

According to Procopius, the city was fortified during the reign of Emperor Justinian (6th century). The ancient citadel continued to be used and its walls were rebuilt, incorporating in the new wall the remaining portions of the ancient wall. From this era's fortification some tall parts of the citadel's wall and the eastern part of the city wall have been preserved. The Citadel continues to be used during post-Byzantine era, as evidenced by extensive repairs in the south and the west wall, in which small slow stones without mortar are used.

In Byzantine times, the eastern part of the acropolis was isolated with partitions, a transverse wall, connecting the northern and southern part of the wall of the citadel, passing east of the two pillars. The partition gate was at the height of the north gate of the citadel, from where one can pass through the eastern rocky plateau. Also Byzantine are the surviving remains of the fortifications in the northwest of the Acropolis, where a part of the western plateau was fortified separately, functioning as a small "citadel". The southern wall of the citadel was always more exposed than the others and for this reason, defenders during the Byzantine years tried boosting it by a series of ramparts built locally.

Concerning construction, in the refits during the Byzantine era, blocks of the ancient wall have been reused on the lower parts of the walls. Plaster binder (kourasani) is used from the base of the wall, while the gaps between the blocks are stamped with small stones and fragments of clay tiles. In the upper part of the masonry, small and medium-sized stones, "kolympitoi", are used inside the mortar. Cases of wooden beam sockets in places of the wall can be distinguished. The width of the Byzantine wall and rampart ranged from 1.70 to 3.40 m and the largest remaining height reaches roughly 5.00 m

The only archaeological evidence of Pharsalus from the Byzantine period are some water tanks in the citadel, found during excavations. Three of them are located within the citadel. The largest one was built together with the south wall of the western part of the citadel. The interior is coated with hydraulic cement and the housing was arch-shaped, the bows of which were supported by truss pairs along the two long sides. Besides pottery, other relics of the Byzantine period have not been identified and excavated so far in the modern city.


BIBLIOGRAPGY

 

Αθανασίου Μήτσος, Αναζητώντας την Φθία και την Ελλάδα, Αθήνα 2009
Βαϊρακλιώτης Λάκης, Τα Φάρσαλα στην Αρχαότητα (Προϊστορία – Μυθολογία – Ιστορία), Φάρσαλα 1990
Bequignon Yves, Ẻtudẻs Thessaliẻnnes, BCH, 1932
Botsford & Robinson, Αρχαία Ελληνική Ιστορία, Αθήνα 1995
Haagsma J. Margiet, Karapanou Sophia and Gouglas Sean, Excavations of the Kastro at Kallithea, ΑΔ 2007, σελ. 5 - 14
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Θεοχάρης Δ., Νεολιθικός Πολιτισμός, Αθήνα 1981
Καραπάνου Σ. – Κατακούτα Στ. , Φάρσαλα, Ιστορία και Αρχαιολογικά Δεδομένα, ΥΠΠΟ, ΙΕ' ΕΠΚΑ ΛΑΡΙΣΑΣ
Καραπάνου Σ., Ελληνοκαναδική Αρχαιολογική Έρευνα στο "Κάστρο" Καλλιθέας Φαρσάλων, ΑΔ 2008, σελ. 6 - 9
Κατακούτα Στ. – Τουφεξής Γ. , Τα τείχη της Φαρσάλου, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΙΑ, Δεκαπέντε χρόνια αρχαιολογικής έρευνας 1975 – 1990, Αποτελέσματα και
Προοπτικές, Πρακτικά Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου της Λυών, 17 – 22 Απριλίου 1990, Τόμος Β', σελ. 189 – 200, Αθήνα 1994
Κοκκορού – Αλευρά Γ., Η Τέχνη της Αρχαίας Ελλάδας, Αθήνα 1991
Νέα Δομή, τόμος 3, σελ. 31
Οικονόμου Κ.Α., Η Λάρισα και η Θεσσαλική Ιστορία, Τόμος Β', "Από τις απαρχές της προϊστορίας, στην Τετραρχία και τη Ρωμαιοκρατία" (8000–197 π.Χ.), Λάρισα 2007
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Πρακτικά Α' Συνεδρίου Φαρσαλινών Σπουδών, Λάρισα 1994
Stählin Friedrich, Η Αρχαία Θεσσαλία, Φ.Ι.ΛΟ.Σ. Τρικάλων, Θεσσαλονίκη 2002
A. Wace – M. Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly, 1912

 

http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Φάρσαλα
www.farsala.gr / διαδικτυακές πύλες- δήμος Φαρσάλων- ιστορία
www.achilles.gr/old.farsalos.htm
http://odysseus.culture.gr/ Ακρόπολη Φαρσάλων
http://odysseus.culture.gr/ Θολωτός Τάφος Φαρσάλων
http://www.polidamantas.gov.gr (Διαδικτυακές Πύλες – Δήμος Πολυδάμαντα - Ιστορία)
http://www.hellinon.net/NeesSelides/Fthia.htm
http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Φθία
www.e-istoria.com/t4.html

 

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